Friday, May 22, 2020

Ecommerce Cyber Crimes - 777 Words

How to Secure your Ecommerce Site against Hacking Attempts Aiesha Hasan Mar 02, 2017 5s E-commerce business continues to skyrocket and when there is money to be made, criminals are here to follow. Online stores are the prime targets for cyber crimes. This is not new as the e-commerce websites are more lucrative for the cyber criminals. This is because e-commerce website process the customer’s money which is itself lucrative for the cyber criminals and secondly the transactions contain sensitive data of the customers that are directly associated with their credit cards, allowing various scams and frauds easier to make. Your e-commerce website is not just a website you are running there, in fact, you are also responsible for your customer’s†¦show more content†¦A password which has minimum characters along with symbols and numbers are harder for cybercriminals to breach into the e-commerce site from front-end. Put up System Alert for Suspicious Activity: Set up system alert notice for multiple transactions done through same IP address. Similarly, online retailers can put up these alerts for multiple orders placed by the same person using different credit cards and phone numbers which are from different areas than billing addresses and orders where the receipt name is different from the card holder name. Layer you E-commerce Security: Layering your security is one of the best ways to keep your e-business secure from cyber-attacks. Put up firewalls, an essential part in stopping cyber criminals before they can breach and get access to your critical and sensitive information. You can add some more extra layers of security to your e-commerce site and the applications such as contact forms, login boxes and search query. These steps will ensure that your e-commerce site is protected from application-level attacks like SQL injections and XSS (Cross-site Scripting) Security Training for Employees: Provide security training to employees and make them understand that they should never reveal private customer information on email or in chats as none of these methods are secure. Make use of strict written protocols and policies and encourage employees to implement them. Use TrackingShow MoreRelatedThe Internet and Cybercrime1781 Words   |  8 Pagesvictims of cybercrime. The Internet has had profound effects on the public, both positive and negative. In this paper we will examine how access to personal information has led to an increase in online and offline crimes. The essay will particularly focus on ecommerce and hacking. For years, cyber criminals have been using bank statements, discarded credit cards, tax invoices and other bills (normally found in trash) to gain access to personal information and assume false identity. However in today’s modernRead MoreThe Issue Of Cyber Crimes Essay1673 Words   |  7 PagesJurisdiction is one of the main issues on account of cyber crimes because of the extremely inclusive nature of the cyber crimes. With the constantly developing arm of the internet the territorial concept appears to vanish. New Methods for resolution of dispute should offer route to the traditional techniques. Accordingly, the Information Technology Act, 2000 is quiet on these issues. In spite of the fact that S. 75 accommodates extra territorial operations of this law, yet they could be significantRead MoreWhat Is The Globalization Of The Internet In New Zealand?1607 Words   |  7 Pagesrate. Furthermore, this would potentially reduce crime rate since it is easier to earn money and they have less spare time on their hands. 4. Technology Internet access has become an integral part in New Zealand. According to Internet Live Stats (2016), the penetration of internet among New Zealanders has increased gradually over the years, from 69% in 2006 to 89.4% in 2016 (See Figure†¦). It is also forecasted to reach 90% in 2018 (SP eCommerce, 2015). Source: Internet Live Stats (2016) Figure†¦:Read MoreCyber Crime Case1458 Words   |  6 Pagesquickly. Cyber crime which are increasing at faster rate should be controlled to protect the organization, CSIRT is the pillar for any organization should act effectively in responding. As many other developing countries, the internet usage in Colombia has also increased rapidly. The Government of Colombia want to develop CSIRT called ColCERT to secure their organizations. In Colombia use communication technologies has increased significantly, this raised the countrys level of exposure to cyber threatsRead MoreEvolution Of Credit Card Fraud Within The Growing E Commerce Industry1716 Words   |  7 Pagesretailors looking for establishing online shopping sites. I examine the evolution of credit card fraud within the growing e-commerce industry. Introduction On January 11, 2014, luxury retailer Neiman Marcus announced possible data breach of its cyber-security and the customers’ credit card data may have been stolen. Tiffany Hsu from Los Angeles Times further reported on January 23, 2014, â€Å"About 1.1 million customer payment card might have been accessed in a security breach†1. Ginger Reeder, aRead MoreDigital Forensic Investigator : An Effective Practice For The Digital Forensics1674 Words   |  7 Pagesapplication that is found on most digital devices that a user purchases to access the Internet. Web browsers have multiple features that provide artifacts which can be accessed and examined for use as digital forensic evidence in an investigation of a crime or civil law suit. Features that a web browser might contain are the ability to use caching, to work with cookies, to store web browsing history, to save bookmarks or favorites, URLs or web site addresses that are typed into the address bar by theRead MoreShort Report on the Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Communications and Information Technology628 Words   |  3 Pagescommunications with videoconferencing, through social network sites like Facebook, or VOIP applications like Skype. Globalisation – ICT has led to the world economy becoming into one interdependent economic system. In business terms, ICT and specifically Ecommerce allow companies and individuals to connect in different countries, within a virtual Global Village. Cost Effectiveness – ICT has automated business processes increasing productivity, which leads to higher profits. The customer also benefits inRead MoreThe Threat Of Criminal Activity1259 Words   |  6 Pagesamount of crimes that are committed online. As people continue to use computers and the Internet globally, the threat of criminal activity will continue to increase. Society is concerned about keeping their personal information confidential and eluding the traps that are in cyberspace. Due to the fact that society is at risk, law enforcement agencies are in somewhat of a quandary trying to keep one step ahead of the phenomenon of cybercrime. The government is not asleep to what cyber security relatedRead MoreInternet Crime and Moral Responsibility3336 Words   |  14 PagesInternet Crime and Moral Responsibility Internet Crime and Moral Responsibility 3 Introduction 3 What is Internet Crime? 3 Types of Crimes 3 Phishing 3 Child Pornography 4 Cyber Stalking 5 Computer Intrusion 5 Denial of Service Attacks and Cyber War 5 Identity Theft 6 Whose responsibility is it to report these crimes? 7 Reporting agencies 8 Conclusion 8 References 9 Internet Crime and Moral Responsibility Introduction The Internet is the technological genius of the computerRead MoreThe Securing Of Data And Information1727 Words   |  7 Pagesand shift from traditional crime to cyber and-or corporate crime. Additionally, there has been a dramatic increase of cooperate internal crime within the business environment a result modern sophisticated technologies; including, highly qualified cybercriminals that constantly dwell on strategies to target businesses internally and externally. For example, corporate (IT) cybercrime most often consists of crime against an organization in which the perpetrator of that crime utilizes a computer and-or

Friday, May 8, 2020

The Mara Salvatrucha From Los Angeles - 1817 Words

The Mara Salvatrucha originating from Los Angeles, California is one of the world’s most renown gangs. The gang was established in Los Angeles in year 1980 by Salvadorian immigrants and war refugees. Salvadorians were migrating to the United States in hope and search for a better life, economically and socially. They came to a rude awakening of racism and isolation within society. These immigrants coming to a different country felt the need to group up and stick by each other helping one another knowing they were all on the same page. Eventually the immigrants feel to the easiest way of life given their circumstances, and fell into the gang life. These Salvadorian Los Angeles residents formed what is now known as Mara Salvatrucha also known as MS-13. Mara Salvatrucha was created by Salvadorians that fled their country because of a civil war. Essentially they were immigrants and refugees, being kids that grew up surrounded by violence. Due to these factors creating a gang was not something out of the norm for these kids, they were used to the violence. MS-13 is now considered the fastest-growing, most violent and least understood of the nation s street gangs in the United States of America. (2005) The word mara stands for â€Å"posse† or â€Å"gang† and Salvatrucha refers to peasants that were trained to become guerrilla fighters in the civil war. It is said that the 13 in MS-13 was adopted out of respect to the Mexican Mafia, representing the 13th letter in the alphabet â€Å"M†. TheShow MoreRelatedA Summary On The Gang1100 Words   |  5 Pagesgroups are usually gangs. Some of the most deadly and violent gangs are Los Zetas, Aryan Brotherhood, Latin Kings, and the most violent Mara Salvatrucha, or MS-13 (Er kan). Mara Salvatrucha is a transnational gang that has been considered one of the most violent gangs yet. They started in California in 1980s (Audie). Why is the gang MS-13 so violent? Is it because of the lack of humanity or because they strip innocence away from everything? MS-13 members/groups are dangerous and should be feared. Read MoreMs-131124 Words   |  5 PagesMS-13 final MS-13 History and Origins The Mara Salvatrucha gang originated in Los Angeles, in the 1980s by Salvadoran immigrants in the neighborhood between Pico and Wilshire also know as the citys Pico-Union neighborhood. They immigrated to the United States Due to a 12-year civil war in El Salvador, which resulted in over 100,000 deaths and over a million refugees( The Salvadorian refugees and immigrants predominantly settled in southern California and Washington, D.CRead MoreThe New Gang Became Known As The Mara Salvatrucha Stoners ( Ms Stoners )977 Words   |  4 Pagesincluded former military combatants. In the 1980’s vast amounts of the refugees migrated to Los Angeles (LA), which is the home of 1,000+ gangs. The refugees were not welcomed to LA and became ostracized in the Hispanic community as it had been controlled by Mexican street gangs (Eighteenth Street gang). This caused some of the refugees to form a group of their own. The new gang became known as the Mara Salvatrucha Stoners (MS Stoners). The gang begins as a group who was all about smoking week and havingRead MoreWhy The Gang Will Never Die Out1914 Words   |  8 Pages MS-13: Why the Gang Will Never Die Out Kathryn E. Psenda University of Colorado, Colorado Springs Abstract Mara Salvatrucha, often called the most dangerous gang in America, was bred from the violence and war that plagued El Salvador for over 12 years. As Salvadoran civilians, as well as ex-guerillas, sought asylum in the United States, they brought with them an ember of this violence that was stoked in the dangerous streets of Pico-Union, L.A. To defend themselves, the refugees formedRead MoreThe New Gang Became Known As The Mara Salvatrucha Stoners ( Ms Stoners ) Essay793 Words   |  4 Pagesincluded former military combatants. In the 1980’s vast amounts of the refugees migrated to Los Angeles (LA), which is the home of 1,000+ gangs. The refugees were not welcomed to LA and became ostracized in the Hispanic community as it had been controlled by Mexican street gangs (Eighteenth Street gang). This caused some of the refugees to form a group of their own. The new gang became known as the Mara Salvatrucha Stoners (MS Stoners). The gang begins as a group who was all about smoking week and havingRead MoreMs 13 Gang2747 Words   |  11 PagesMARA-SAVATRUCHA (MS13) The Civil War in the early 1980s in El Salvador cost the lives of about 100,000 people. Besides, two million people are reported to have immigrated to the United States, due to the uncertain political and social conditions there. A big chunk of the refugees arrived and settled in the Rampart area of Los Angeles. They needed low cost housing and employment. That area was already afflicted with gangs and crimes. For the local population of Mexican-Americans, this wasRead MoreThe Problem Of Gang Violence1356 Words   |  6 PagesGang violence has grown to be a great problem in El Salvador in the last 30 years. Gangs have grown into large, complex organized crime units; the two largest gangs, MS13 (also known as Mara Salvatrucha 13) and Barrio18 (also known as Calle18), now encompass large parts of Central America. Both gangs rely heavily on local drug-peddling, which drives most of the general gang violence. The desire for control over certain areas had forged a fierce rivalry, in which civilians are often endangered whenRead MoreThe Ways Of Groups Influence Individuals1018 Words   |  5 Pagesothers through either choice or accidental circumstances. Mara Salvatrucha also known as MS-13 originated in Los Angeles California. Salvadoran immigrants formed MS-13 to protect themselves from other established gangs of Los Angeles, who were predominantly composed of Mexicans and African-Americans. I thought that it was really interesting how the gang members were recruiting new members at such a young age. They were targeting kids who came from a troublesome home life, broken homes, or parents whoRead MoreGang Culture in the West Essay721 Words   |  3 Pagesalong the immigration trail that began in Mexico and continued along a route through El Paso and Albuquerque, and onward to Los Angeles (sagepub). The first Mexican Los Angeles gangs, the Bogardus called â€Å"boy gangs† in 1926, were modeled after the palomilla (StudyingYouthGangs). Many gangs have arisen since then including Mara Salvatrucha 13 (MS-13). MS-13 was formed in Los Angeles, California in the 1980s by immigrant Salvadorian youth and young adults who were being victimized by other gangs. MS-13Read MoreThe Gang s Cut Of A Range Of Criminal Enterprises And Activities1029 Words   |  5 Pagesothers through either choice or accidental circumstances. Mara Salvatrucha also known as MS-13 originated in Los Angeles California. Salvadoran immigrants formed MS-13 to protect themselves from other established gangs of Los Angeles, who were predominantly composed of Mexicans and African-Americans. I thought that it was really interesting how the gang members were recruiting new members at such a young age. They were targeting kids who came from a troublesome home life, broken homes, or parents who

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Paper vs Plastic, Which Is Better Free Essays

Thousands and thousands of people are shopping in grocery stores each day using either plastic or paper bags. They think of it as something that just holds their items. What they don’t know is how much it harms our environment. We will write a custom essay sample on Paper vs Plastic, Which Is Better or any similar topic only for you Order Now So the question is which is better? â€Å"3. 14 billion Plastic shopping bags and 53 million Kraft paper bags are produced annually to satisfy the national market, consuming 28. 5 million kilograms of plastic and 4. 8 million kilograms of paper†( Goldbeck 333). A man named Shropshire in Annapolis had a campaign to get rid of plastic bags and is referred to as the â€Å"the bag man. â€Å"12 million barrels of oil are needed to produce 100 billion plastic bags used in the United States each year,† He said. According to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency only 5% of those bags are being recycled and the rest are thrown into landfills. He also says that plastic bags from Annapolis land in Chesapeake Bay and marine animals swallow them, mistaking them for jelly fish. â€Å"Estimates prepared by the New York City Department of Sanitation suggest that if each New Yorker would use one less grocery sack per week, the city’s garbage could be reduced by 2500 tons every year, saving 250,000 taxpayer dollars â€Å"(Goldbeck 333). Some officials say. that producing the bags takes too much energy and they create environmental hazards. The only problem is that plastic is cheaper and create less landfill waste than paper bags. Plastic bags are made with polyethylene. 80% of polyethylene is made from natural gas; a non-renewable resource. According to the Boustead Consulting Association polyethylene uses less water, oil and energy. Plastic bags use 40% less energy than paper and plastic sacks. The alliance says, they generate 80% less solid waste. Donna Dempsey of the Progressive Bag Alliance, a group representing plastic bag manufacturers, says that an alternative to plastic bags like paper wouldn’t actually be greener. She also says that paper bags use up more fossil fuels in their lifecycle than plastic. Paper bags are made from a lot of trees. Paper grocery bags, are an American innovation and were designed in 1883. It’s also made from a Kraft (German: means course and strength) paper. According to the American Forest and Paper Association, paper collection is easily and readily available in most parts of the country. But like plastic, paper uses natural resources and creates pollution. The manufacturing of one paper bag uses 1 whole gallon of water! Trees have to dry for 3 whole years before making it into paper. Then it’s cooked under heat and pressure†¦Etc. So paper also use up resources. When paper is thrown away it’s either recycled or thrown in a landfill. Both paper and plastic bags can pollute and effect the environment. So it’s hard to say which is better to use. I f we want an option better for the environment its better to use neither of them. The best option there is out there is reusable bags. How to cite Paper vs Plastic, Which Is Better, Essay examples

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

The impact of using calculators in teaching mathematics at lower grades

Background Study Different people have different inferences about the effects of using calculators in teaching mathematics at lower grades. Some people are of the opinion that the use of calculators at lower classes helps learners to understand mathematics concepts better. They argue that using calculators help learners in lower grades to develop a sense of numbers as well as making them become more confident with their mathematics abilities.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The impact of using calculators in teaching mathematics at lower grades specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More According to Starr (2012), The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics recommends the use of calculators to all mathematics learners at all levels. It argues that long divisions as well as pencil and paper calculations are tedious and are associated with decreased attention of mathematics learners. Conversely, some scholars are against the use of calculators in lower grades. They argue that introducing calculators to learners in lower grades makes it difficulty for the learners to master basic mathematics concepts. Anderson (2005) claims that the use of calculators at lower grades makes the learners to keep on trying different operations to arrive at the required solutions without understanding the underlying principals. Moreover, Williamson (2000) posits that the use of calculators in lower grades makes mathematics learners not to conceptualize logical reasoning that is imperative in disciplining the mind. Problem Statements The use or not use of calculators at lower grades is a contentious issue for many scholars. Some Scholars are for the use of calculators at lower grades, while others are against it. Nonetheless, the most important aspect is not whether lower grade mathematics learners should use or not use calculators, but identifying the most appropriate stage at which mathematics learners should be allowed to use calculators (Williamson, 2000). It is from this perspective that this research tries to unearth the underlying effects of introducing calculators to mathematics learners at lower grades in order to recommend appropriate solutions. Significance of the Study This study will be very instrumental in helping appropriate education stakeholders such as the ministry of education to identify whether mathematics learners at lower grades will be allowed to use calculators or not. In addition, the results of this study will act as guidance to mathematics teachers on whether the use of calculators at lower grades is helpful or detrimental to the mathematics learners understanding of mathematics concepts.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Aims and Objectives The chief aim of this study will be to find out whether introducing calculators to mathematics learners at lower grades promotes or hind ers learners’ conceptualization of mathematics concepts. Specific Objectives To find out whether introducing mathematics to learners at grade lower grades boost their understanding of mathematics concepts To find out whether introducing calculators to mathematics learners at lower grades hinders their understanding of the underlying mathematics concepts. To recommend appropriate stage to introduce calculators to mathematics learners Research questions In order to realize the above objectives, this study will try to answer the following questions. Does introducing calculators to mathematics learners at lower grades boost their understanding of mathematics principals? Does introducing mathematics at lower grades hinder mathematics learner’s ability to understand underlying mathematics principals? Which is the most appropriate stage to introduce calculators to mathematics learners? How I selected the topic and Challenges I faced I selected the topic after reviewing re levant literature about the use of technology in mathematics. I experienced a lot of problem in narrowing down my topic to the impacts of the use of calculators at lower grades. Nevertheless, I finally managed to come up with this topic that I consider very appropriate for the study. I came up with this topic after discovering that most of the topics that have been researched on about the subject mainly focused on the impacts of the use of technology in mathematics. Therefore, when I identified the existing gap between the use of calculators and its effects at lower grades, I decided to base my research topic on it in order to establish the existing relationship. Moreover, I experience a lot of problem in coming up with appropriate research questions that were needed to guide the discussion. After doing a bit of research on how to formulate research questions and consultation from my colleagues, I was able to identify three research questions that I will use for this study. Referenc e List Anderson, P. (2005).Education Battle Over the use of Calculators. New York: Prentice Hall. Star, L. (2012). The Role of Long Division in Mathematics. Cambridge: Cambridge University PressAdvertising We will write a custom essay sample on The impact of using calculators in teaching mathematics at lower grades specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Williamson, K. (2000).Calculators in Classroom for Improvement of Mathematics. New York: Prentice Hall This essay on The impact of using calculators in teaching mathematics at lower grades was written and submitted by user Leila Hardy to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Prairie Dogs essays

Prairie Dogs essays Prairie dogs are small, rodents like mammals that live in the western united states. There are millions of prairie dogs that live in the dry plains of the western united states. Most prairie dogs have light brown to tan fur. White tail prairie dogs have a white tipped tail and black tail prairie dogs have a black tipped tail. Prairie dogs are about 4-7 inches tall, 9-14 inches long and weigh about 1.5 to 3 pounds. Prairie dogs are not nocturnal. This means that most of their activities take place in the day-time. During the winter, prairie dogs do not hibernate, and they do not migrate. However, they are slightly less active in the winter. One main instinct of prairie dogs is to let out a high pitched dog like bark to alert other prairie dogs of danger. Some predators of prairie dogs are snakes, hawks, and ferrets. The main predators of prairie dogs are farmers. Farmers shoot, poison, trap and sometimes even blow up prairie dogs because they destroy agricultural land. Because of this , the Mexican prairie dog is becoming endangered. This is the only species of prairie dog that is endangered. Prairie dogs mainly eat vegetation. This includes grasses, roots and weeds in the wild, and apples, yams, and puppy chow in captivity. Prairie dogs are expected to live 3-5 years in the wild and about 8 years in captivity. When a prairie dog is pregnant, it takes about one month for a litter of prairie dogs to be born. The female prairie dog gives birth to 3-8 young. The mating season of a prairie dog is mid-spring. ...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Invasion of Italy (Salerno) in World War II

Invasion of Italy (Salerno) in World War II The Allied invasion of Italy took place September 3-16, 1943, during World War II (1939-1945). Having driven German and Italian troops from North Africa and Sicily, the Allies decided to invade Italy in September 1943. Landing in Calabria and south of Salerno, British and American forces pushed inland. The fighting around Salerno proved particularly fierce and ended when British forces from Calabria arrived. Defeated around the beaches, the Germans withdrew north to the Volturno Line. The invasion opened a second front in Europe and helped take pressure off Soviet forces in the east. Fast Facts: Invasion of Italy Dates: September 3-16, 1943, during World War II (1939-1945).Allies Armies and Commanders: General Sir Harold Alexander, General Sir Bernard Montgomery, and Lieutenant General Mark Clark; 189,000 men.Axis Armies and Commanders: Field Marshal Albert Kesselring and Colonel General Heinrich von Vietinghoff; 100,000 men. Sicily With the conclusion of the campaign in North Africa in the late spring of 1943, Allied planners began looking north across the Mediterranean. Though American leaders such as General George C. Marshall favored moving forward with an invasion of France, his British counterparts desired a strike against southern Europe. Prime Minister Winston Churchill ardently advocated for attacking through what he termed the soft underbelly of Europe as he believed that Italy could be knocked out of the war and the Mediterranean opened to Allied shipping.  Ã‚   As it became increasingly clear that resources were not available for a cross-Channel operation in 1943, President Franklin Roosevelt agreed to the invasion of Sicily. Landing in July, American and British forces came ashore near Gela and south of Syracuse. Pushing inland, the troops of Lieutenant General George S. Pattons Seventh Army and General Sir Bernard Montgomerys Eighth Army pushed back the Axis defenders.   Next Steps These efforts resulted in a successful campaign which led to the overthrow of Italian leader Benito Mussolini  in late July 1943. With operations in Sicily coming to close in mid-August, the Allied leadership renewed discussions regarding an invasion of Italy. Though the Americans remained reluctant, Roosevelt understood the need to continue engaging the enemy to relieve Axis pressure on the Soviet Union until landings in northwest Europe could move forward. Also, as the Italians had approached the Allies with peace overtures, it was hoped that much of the country could be occupied before German troops arrived in large numbers. Prior to the campaign in Sicily, Allied plans foresaw a limited invasion of Italy that would be restricted to the southern part of the peninsula. With the collapse of Mussolinis government, more ambitious operations were considered. In assessing options for invading Italy, the Americans initially hoped to come ashore in the northern part of the country, but the range of Allied fighters limited potential landing areas to the Volturno river basin and the beaches around Salerno. Though further south, Salerno was chosen due to its calmer surf conditions, proximity to to Allied airbases, and existing road network beyond the beaches. Operation Baytown Planning for the invasion fell to Supreme Allied Commander in the Mediterranean, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, and the commander of the 15th Army Group, General Sir Harold Alexander. Working on a compressed schedule, their staffs at Allied Force Headquarters devised two operations, Baytown and Avalanche, which called for landings in Calabria and Salerno respectively. Assigned to Montgomerys Eighth Army, Baytown was scheduled for September 3. It was hoped that these landings would draw German forces south allowing them to be trapped in southern Italy by the later Avalanche landings on September 9 and also had the benefit of the landing craft being able to depart directly from Sicily. Not believing that the Germans would give battle in Calabria, Montgomery came to oppose Operation Baytown as he felt that it placed his men too far from the main landings at Salerno. As events unfolded, Montgomery was proved correct and his men were forced to march 300 miles against minimal resistance to the reach the fighting. Operation Avalanche Execution of Operation Avalanche fell to Lieutenant General Mark Clarks US Fifth Army which was comprised of Major General Ernest Dawleys US VI Corps and Lieutenant General Richard McCreerys British X Corps. Tasked with seizing Naples and driving across to the east coast to cut off enemy forces to the south, Operation Avalanche called for landing on a broad, 35-mile front to the south of Salerno. Responsibility for the initial landings fell to the British 46th and 56th Divisions in the north and the US 36th Infantry Division in the south. The British and American positions were separated by the Sele River. Supporting the invasions left flank was a force of US Army Rangers and British Commandoes which were given the objective of securing the mountain passes on the Sorrento Peninsula and blocking German reinforcements from Naples. Prior to the invasion, extensive thought was given to a variety of supporting airborne operations utilizing the US 82nd Airborne Division. These included employing glider troops to secure the passes on the Sorrento Peninsula as well as a full-division effort to capture the crossings over the Volturno River. Each of these operations were deemed either unnecessary or unsupportable and were dismissed. As a result, the 82nd was placed in reserve. At sea, the invasion would would be supported by a total of 627 vessels under the command of Vice Admiral Henry K. Hewitt, a veteran of both the North Africa and Sicily landings. Though achieving surprise was unlikely, Clark made no provision for a pre-invasion naval bombardment despite evidence from the Pacific which suggested this was required (Map). German Preparations With the collapse of Italy, the Germans commenced plans for defending the peninsula. In the north, Army Group B, under Field Marshal Erwin Rommel assumed responsibility as far south as Pisa. Below this point, Field Marshal Albert Kesselrings Army Command South was tasked with halting the Allies. Kesselrings primary field formation, Colonel General Heinrich von Vietinghoffs Tenth Army, consisting of XIV Panzer Corps and LXXVI Panzer Corps, came online on August 22 and began moving to defensive positions. Not believing that any enemy landings in Calabria or other areas in the south would be the be main Allied effort, Kesselring left these areas lightly defended and directed troops to delay any advances by destroying bridges and blocking roads. This task largely fell to General Traugott Herrs LXXVI Panzer Corps. Montgomery Lands On September 3, Eighth Armys XIII Corps crossed the Straits of Messina and commenced landings at various points in Calabria. Meeting light Italian opposition, Montgomerys men had little trouble coming ashore and began forming to move north. Though they encountered some German resistance, the greatest impediment to their advance came in the form of demolished bridges, mines, and roadblocks. Due to the rugged nature of the terrain which held British forces to the roads, Montgomerys speed became dependent on the rate at which his engineers could clear obstacles. On September 8, the Allies announced that Italy had formally surrendered. In response, the Germans initiated Operation Achse which saw them disarm Italian units and take over defense of key points. In addition, with the Italian capitulation, the Allies commenced Operation Slapstick on April 9 which called for British and US warships to ferry the British 1st Airborne Division into the port of Taranto. Meeting no opposition, they landed and occupied the port. Landing at Salerno On September 9, Clarks forces began moving towards the beaches south of Salerno. Aware of the Allies approach, German forces on the heights behind the beaches prepared for the landings. On the Allied left, the Rangers and Commandos came ashore without incident and quickly secured their objectives in the mountains of the Sorrento Peninsula. To their right, McCreerys corps encountered fierce German resistance and required naval gunfire support to move inland. Fully occupied on their front, the British were unable to press south to link up with the Americans. Meeting intense fire from elements of the 16th Panzer Division, the 36th Infantry Division initially struggled to gain ground until reserve units were landed. As night fell, the British had achieved an advance inland of between five to seven miles while the Americans held the plain to the south of the Sele and gained around five miles in some areas. Though the Allies had come ashore, German commanders were pleased with the initial defense and began shifting units towards the beachhead. The Germans Strike Back Over the next three days, Clark worked to land additional troops and expand the Allied lines. Due to the tenacious German defense, growing the beachhead proved slow which hampered Clarks ability to build up additional forces. As a result, by September 12, X Corps switched to the defensive as insufficient men were available to continue the advance. The next day, Kesselring and von Vietinghoff commenced a counter-offensive against the Allied position. While the Hermann Gà ¶ring Panzer Division struck from the north, the main German attack hit the boundary between the two Allied corps. This assault gained ground until stopped by a last ditch defense by the 36th Infantry Division. That night, the US VI Corps was reinforced by elements of the 82nd Airborne Division which jumped inside the Allied lines. As additional reinforcements arrived, the Clarks men were able to turn back German attacks on September 14 with the aid of naval gunfire (Map). On September 15, having sustained heavy losses and failed to break through the Allied lines, Kesselring put the 16th Panzer Division and 29th Panzergrenadier Division on the defensive. To the north, XIV Panzer Corps continued their attacks but were defeated by Allied forces supported by airpower and naval gunfire. Subsequent efforts met a similar fate the next day. With the battle at Salerno raging, Montgomery was pressed by Alexander to hasten Eighth Armys advance north. Still hampered by poor road conditions, Montgomery dispatched light forces up the coast. On September 16, forward patrols from this detachment made contact with the 36th Infantry Division. With Eighth Armys approach and lacking the forces to continue attacking, von Vietinghoff recommended breaking off the battle and pivoting Tenth Army into a new defensive line spanning the peninsula. Kesselring agreed on September 17 and on the night of the 18/19th, German forces began pulling back from the beachhead. Aftermath During the course of the invasion of Italy, Allied forces sustained 2,009 killed, 7,050 wounded, and 3,501 missing while German casualties numbered around 3,500. Having secured the beachhead, Clark turned north and began attacking towards Naples on September 19. Arriving from Calabria, Montgomerys Eighth Army fell into line on the east side of the Apennine Mountains and pushed up the east coast. On October 1, Allied forces entered Naples as von Vietinghoffs men withdrew into the positions of the Volturno Line. Driving north, the Allies broke through this position and the Germans fought several rearguard actions as they retreated. Pursuing, Alexanders forces ground their way north until encountering the Winter Line in mid-November. Blocked by these defenses, the Allies finally broke through in May 1944 following the Battles of Anzio and Monte Cassino.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Banking and international banking system Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Banking and international banking system - Essay Example Major financial institutions collapsed or near collapsed and credit markets were frozen. Bear Stearns and Sachsen LB (German bank), banks fell in 2007. It was followed by IndyMac Bank in receivership and demise of Lehman Brother in the quarter of 2008 (Drea 2009). After September 2008, panic in the financial global sector escalated and spread to other sectors of the economies. Investors were shocked by losses that they incurred on assets they thought were safe. There was strong evidence that contagion was linked with global financial crisis. This happened through liquidity and risk-premium channels in the financial markets. There was clear evidence informed by research that contagion during subprime crisis was clearly shown by significance of t-statistic for lagged ABX index returns in 2006 (Longstaff, 2010). Cross-market linkages were stronger and significant during subprime crisis indicating that that 2007 subprime crisis resulted in large shifts in trading activity, liquidity and funding in the financial markets across the world. A number of reasons have been advanced concerning the recent global financial crisis. ... The foreign money was savings piling up and owners wanted to invest their monies away from home where they were assured of some returns. The net inflow of foreign savings into the United States in 2006 was about 6 percent of the United States’ output. Instead of investing foreign moneys appropriately, financial institutions in the United States that received the surplus funds from Asia converted the monies to loans that were aggressively given to borrowers, especially homeowners. Mortgage market was attractive to investors because over 80 percent of mortgage market in the United States was securitized and they that their monies would be invest well (Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission, 2010). Securitization created the much needed diversification to investors and liquidity for business entities and individuals. Securitization refers to pooling mortgages together as securities. Once pooled as securities, they are sold to investors. However, investors and players in the industry lacked the business acumen to realize that securitization lacked clarity and transparency. Financial institutions also underestimated the risk associated with securitization and sold mortgage backed securities to investors across the world. The investors, which included banks, money markets, pension hedge and mutual funds, purchased the mortgage backed securities thinking they were safe. However, securitization was not able to provide protection against systematic risks. Even, credit rating agencies failed to take into account systematic risks and awarded the mortgage backed securities with AAA rating because it was considered low risk securities. Therefore, credit rating agencies could not price systematic risks into subprime mortgage pools. In